I’ve been blogging since 2005, but posts from 2005–10 have not been imported to the current iteration of my website.

Yesterday I upgraded a machine from Debian “buster” to “bullseye” without apt-listchanges installed, oops. Here’s a way to get new NEWS.Debian entries after the fact.

perl -MDpkg::Changelog::Debian -wE'$parser = Dpkg::Changelog::Debian->new;
    for (</usr/share/doc/*/NEWS.Debian*>) {
        $_->get_timepiece && $_->get_timepiece->year < 2020 ? last : say
            for $parser->@* }' 2>&1 | mail -s"News for $(hostname)" you@example.com
Posted Sun 15 Aug 2021 21:55:44 UTC

I realised this week that my recent efforts to improve how Consfigurator makes the fork(2) system call have also created a way to install executables to remote systems which will execute arbitrary Common Lisp code. Distributing precompiled programs using free software implementations of the Common Lisp standard tends to be more of a hassle than with a lot of other high level programming languages. Executables will often be hundreds of megabytes in size even if your codebase is just a few megabytes, because the whole interactive Common Lisp environment gets bundled along with your program’s code. Commercial Common Lisp implementations manage to do better, as I understand it, by knowing how to shake out unused code paths. Consfigurator’s new mechanism uploads only changed source code, which might only be kilobytes in size, and updates the executable on the remote system. So it should be useful for deploying Common Lisp-powered web services, and the like.

Here’s how it works. When you use Consfigurator you define an ASDF system – analagous to a Python package or Perl distribution – called your “consfig”. This defines HOST objects to represent the machines that you’ll use Consfigurator to manage, and any custom properties, functions those properties call, etc.. An ASDF system can depend upon other systems; for example, every consfig depends upon Consfigurator itself. When you execute Consfigurator deployments, Consfigurator uploads the source code of any ASDF systems that have changed since you last deployed this host, starts up Lisp on the remote machine, and loads up all the systems. Now the remote Lisp image is in a similarly clean state to when you’ve just started up Lisp on your laptop and loaded up the libraries you’re going to use. Only then are the actual deployment instructions are sent on stdin.

What I’ve done this week is insert an extra step for the remote Lisp image in between loading up all the ASDF systems and reading the deployment from stdin: the image calls fork(2) and establishes a pipe to communicate with the child process. The child process can be sent Lisp forms to evaluate, but for each Lisp form it receives it will actually fork again, and have its child process evaluate the form. Thus, going into the deployment, the original remote Lisp image has the capability to have arbitrary Lisp forms evaluated in a context in which all that has happened is that a statically defined set of ASDF systems has been loaded – the child processes never see the full deployment instructions sent on stdin. Further, the child process responsible for actually evaluating the Lisp form received from the first process first forks off another child process and sets up its own control pipe, such that it too has the capacbility to have arbitrary Lisp forms evaluated in a cleanly loaded context, no matter what else it might put in its memory in the meantime. (Things are set up such that the child processes responsible for actually evaluating the Lisp forms never see the Lisp forms received for evaluation by other child processes, either.)

So suppose now we have an ASDF system :com.silentflame.cool-web-service, and there is a function (start-server PORT) which we should call to start listening for connections. Then we can make our consfig depend upon that ASDF system, and do something like this:

CONSFIG> (deploy-these ((:ssh :user "root") :sbcl) server.example.org
           ;; Set up Apache to proxy requests to our service.
           (apache:https-vhost ...)
           ;; Now apply a property to dump the image.
           (image-dumped "/usr/local/bin/cool-web-service"
                         '(cool-web-service:start-server 1234)))

Consfigurator will: SSH to server.example.org; upload all the ASDF source for your consfig and its dependencies; compile and load that code into a remote SBCL process; call fork(2) and set up the control pipe; receive the applications of APACHE:HTTPS-VHOST and IMAGE-DUMPED shown above from your laptop, on stdin; apply the APACHE:HTTPS-VHOST property to ensure that Apache is proxying connections to port 1234; send a request into the control pipe to have the child process fork again and dump an executable which, when started, will evaluate the form (cool-web-service:start-server 1234). And that form will get evaluated in a pristine Lisp image, where the only meaningful things that have happened is that some ASDF systems have been loaded and a single fork(2) has taken place. You’d probably need to add some other properties to add some mechanism for actually invoking /usr/local/bin/cool-web-service and restarting it when the executable is updated.

(Background: The primary reason why Consfigurator’s remote Lisp images need to call fork(2) is that they need to do things like setuid from root to other accounts and enter chroots without getting stuck in those contexts. Previously we forked right before entering such contexts, but that meant that Consfigurator deployments could never be multithreaded, because it might later be necessary to fork, and you can’t usually do that once you’ve got more than one thread running. So now we fork before doing anything else, so that the parent can then go multithreaded if desired, but can still execute subdeployments in contexts like chroots by sending Lisp forms to evaluate in those contexts into the control pipe.)

Posted Wed 21 Jul 2021 20:30:09 UTC Tags:

Tonight I’m provisioning a new virtual machine at Hetzner and I wanted to share how Consfigurator is helping with that. Hetzner have a Debian “buster” image you can start with, as you’d expect, but it comes with things like cloud-init, preconfiguration to use Hetzner’s apt mirror which doesn’t serve source packages(!), and perhaps other things I haven’t discovered. It’s a fine place to begin, but I want all the configuration for this server to be explicit in my Consfigurator consfig, so it is good to start with pristine upstream Debian. I could boot one of Hetzner’s installation ISOs but that’s slow and manual. Consfigurator can replace the OS in the VM’s root filesystem and reboot for me, and we’re ready to go.

Here’s the configuration:

(defhost foo.silentflame.com (:deploy ((:ssh :user "root") :sbcl))
  (os:debian-stable "buster" :amd64)

  ;; Hetzner's Debian 10 image comes with a three-partition layout and boots
  ;; with traditional BIOS.
    :device-file "/dev/sda" :boots-with '(grub:grub :target "i386-pc")))

  (on-change (installer:cleanly-installed-once
              ;; This is a specification of the OS Hetzner's image has, so
              ;; Consfigurator knows how to install SBCL and debootstrap(8).
              ;; In this case it's the same Debian release as the replacement.
              '(os:debian-stable "buster" :amd64))

    ;; Clear out the old OS's EFI system partition contents, in case we can
    ;; switch to booting with EFI at some point (if we wanted we could specify
    ;; an additional x86_64-efi target above, and grub-install would get run
    ;; to repopulate /boot/efi, but I don't think Hetzner can boot from it yet).
    (file:directory-does-not-exist "/boot/efi/EFI")

    (apt:installed "linux-image-amd64")

       (mounted-ext4-filesystem :mount-point "/")
         :mount-options '("umask=0077") :mount-point "/boot/efi"))))
    (file:lacks-lines "/etc/fstab" "# UNCONFIGURED FSTAB FOR BASE SYSTEM")

    (file:is-copy-of "/etc/resolv.conf" "/old-os/etc/resolv.conf")
    (mount:unmounted-below-and-removed "/old-os"))

  (apt:mirror "http://ftp.de.debian.org/debian")
  (as "root" (ssh:authorized-keys +spwsshkey+))
  (timezone:configured "Etc/UTC")
  (swap:has-swap-file "2G")

  (network:static "enp1s0" "xxx.xxx.xxx.xxx" "xxx.xxx.1.1" ""))

and to use it you evaluate this at the REPL:

CONSFIG> (deploy ((:ssh :user "root" :hop "xxx.xxx.xxx.xxx") :sbcl) foo.silentflame.com)

Here the :HOP parameter specifies the IP address of the new machine, as DNS hasn’t been updated yet. Consfigurator installs SBCL and debootstrap(8), prepares a minimal system, replaces the contents of /, gets to work applying the other properties, and then reboots. This gets us a properly populated fstab:

UUID=...            /           ext4    relatime    0   1
PARTUUID=...        /boot/efi   vfat    umask=0077  0   2
/var/lib/swapfile   swap        swap    defaults    0   0

(slightly doctored for more readable alignment)

There’s ordering logic so that the swapfile will end up after whatever filesystem contains it; a UUID is used for ext4 filesystems, but for fat32 filesystems, to be safe, a PARTUUID is used.

The application of (INSTALLER:BOOTLOADERS-INSTALLED) handles calling both update-grub(8) and grub-install(8), relying on the metadata specified about /dev/sda. Next time we execute Consfigurator against the machine, it’ll ignore all the property applications attached to the application of (INSTALLER:CLEANLY-INSTALLED-ONCE) with ON-CHANGE, and just apply everything following that block.

There are a few things I don’t have good solutions for. When you boot Hetzner’s image the primary network interface is eth0, but then for a freshly debootstrapped Debian you get enp1s0, and I haven’t got a good way of knowing what it’ll be (if you know it’ll have the same name, you can use (NETWORK:PRESERVE-STATIC-ONCE) to create a file in /etc/network/interfaces.d based on the current default route and corresponding interface).

Another tricky thing is SSH host keys. It’s easy to use Consfigurator to add host keys to your laptop’s ~/.ssh/known_hosts, but in this case the host key changes back and forth from whatever the Hetzner image has and the newly generated key you get afterwards. One option might be to copy the old host keys out of /old-os before it gets deleted, like how /etc/resolv.conf is copied.

This work is based on Propellor’s equivalent functionality. I think my approach to handling /etc/fstab and bootloader installation is an improvement on what Joey does.

Posted Sat 10 Jul 2021 04:20:43 UTC Tags:

If you’re writing a lot of Common Lisp and you want to follow the convention of using all uppercase to refer to symbols in docstrings, comments etc., you really need something better than the shift key. Similarly if you’re writing C and you have VARIOUS_LONG_ENUMS.

The traditional way is a caps lock key. But that means giving up a whole keyboard key, all of the time, just for block capitalisation, which one hardly uses outside of programming. So a better alternative is to come up with some Emacs thing to get block capitalisation, as Emacs key binding is much more flexible than system keyboard layouts, and can let us get block capitalisation without giving up a whole key.

The simplest thing would be to bind some sequence of keys to just toggle caps lock. But I came up with something a bit fancier. With the following, you can type M-C, and then you get block caps until the point at which you’ve probably finished typing your symbol or enum name.

(defun spw/transient-caps-self-insert (&optional n)
  (interactive "p")
  (insert-char (upcase last-command-event) n))

(defun spw/activate-transient-caps ()
  "Activate caps lock while typing the current whitespace-delimited word(s).
This is useful for typing Lisp symbols and C enums which consist
of several all-uppercase words separated by hyphens and
underscores, such that M-- M-u after typing will not upcase the
whole thing."
  (let* ((map (make-sparse-keymap))
     (deletion-commands '(delete-backward-char
     (typing-commands (cons 'spw/transient-caps-self-insert
     (substitute-key-definition 'self-insert-command
     (lambda ()
       ;; try to determine whether we are probably still about to try to type
       ;; something in all-uppercase
       (and (member this-command typing-commands)
            (not (and (eq this-command 'spw/transient-caps-self-insert)
                      (= (char-syntax last-command-event) ?\ )))
            (not (and (or (bolp) (= (char-syntax (char-before)) ?\ ))
                      (member this-command deletion-commands))))))))

(global-set-key "\M-C" #'spw/activate-transient-caps)

A few notes:

  • I have caps lock on left-ctrl on standard keyboard layouts, and on the sequence keypd-capslock-keypd on the Kinesis Advantage. These are about equally inconvenient, but good enough for those rare cases one needs caps lock outside of Emacs.

  • I also had the idea of binding this to Delete, because I don’t use that at all in Emacs, but Delete is relatively hard to hit on conventional keyboards, sometimes missing, and might not work in some text terminals.

  • I’ve actually trained myself to set the mark, type my symbol or enum and then just C-x C-u to upcase it, so I’m not actually using the above, but I thought someone else might like it, so still worth posting.

Posted Sun 20 Jun 2021 00:26:03 UTC

I recently bought a Pinebook Pro. This was mainly out of general interest, but also because I wanted to have a spare portable computer. When I was recently having some difficulty with my laptop not charging, I realised that I am dependent on having access to Emacs, notmuch.el and my usual git repositories in the way that most people are dependent on their smartphones – all the info I need to get things done is in there, and it’s very disabling not to have it. So, good to have a spare.

I decided to get the machine running the hard way, and have been working to add a facility to install the device-specific bootloader to Consfigurator. It has been good to learn about how ARM machines boot. The only really hard part turned out to be coming up with the right abstractions within Consfigurator, thanks to the hard work of the Debian U-Boot maintainers. This left me with a chroot and a corresponding disk image, properly partitioned and with the bootloader installed. It was only then that the difficulties began: getting a kernel and initrd combination which can output to the Pinebook Pro’s screen and take input from its keyboard is not really straightforward yet, but that’s required for inputting disk encryption passwords, which are required on portable devices. I don’t have the right hardware to make a serial connection to the machine, so all this took a lot of trial and error. I’ve ended up using Manjaro’s patched upstream kernel build for now, because that compiles in the right drivers, and debugging an initrd without a serial connection is far too inefficient.

What I keep having to remind myself is that this device isn’t really a laptop in the usual sense – it’s a single board computer that’s powering several pieces of hardware which together roughly constitute a laptop. I think something which epitomises this is how the power light doesn’t come on when you hit the power button, but only when the bootloader or operating system kernel thinks to turn on the LED. You start up this SBC and it loads up some software and then once it has got itself going – several seconds later – that software starts turning on the screen, keyboard, power LEDs etc. Whereas on an ordinary laptop it’s more than you turn on the keyboard, screen, power LEDs etc. all at once, and then /they/ go off and load some software. Of course this description is nothing like what’s actually going on, but it’s my attempt to capture how it feels as a user, who is installing operating systems, but otherwise treating the laptop’s hardware, including things like boot ROMs, as a black box. There are tangible differences between what it is like to do that with an ordinary laptop and with the Pinebook Pro.

Thanks to Vagrant Cascadian for all the work on U-Boot in Debian and for help on IRC, Cyril Brulebois for help with crossbuilding, and Birger Schacht for a useful blog post.

Posted Sat 15 May 2021 00:24:48 UTC

One of my goals for Consfigurator is to make it capable of installing Debian to my laptop, so that I can stop booting to GRML and manually partitioning and debootstrapping a basic system, only to then turn to configuration management to set everything else up. My configuration management should be able to handle the partitioning and debootstrapping, too.

The first stage was to make Consfigurator capable of debootstrapping a basic system, chrooting into it, and applying other arbitrary configuration, such as installing packages. That’s been in place for some weeks now. It’s sophisticated enough to avoid starting up newly installed services, but I still need to add some bind mounting.

Another significant piece is teaching Consfigurator how to partition block devices. That’s quite tricky to do in a sufficiently general way – I want to cleanly support various combinations of LUKS, LVM and regular partitions, including populating /etc/crypttab and /etc/fstab. I have some ideas about how to do it, but it’ll probably take a few tries to get the abstractions right.

Let’s imagine that code is all in place, such that Consfigurator can be pointed at a block device and it will install a bootable Debian system to it. Then to install Debian to my laptop I’d just need to take my laptop’s disk drive out and plug it into another system, and run Consfigurator on that system, as root, pointed at the block device representing my laptop’s disk drive. For virtual machines, it would be easy to write code which loop-mounts an empty disk image, and then Consfigurator could be pointed at the loop-mounted block device, thereby making the disk image file bootable.

This is adequate for virtual machines, or small single-board computers with tiny storage devices (not that I actually use any of those, but I want Consfigurator to be able to make disk images for them!). But it’s not much good for my laptop. I casually referred to taking out my laptop’s disk drive and connecting it to another computer, but this would void my laptop’s warranty. And Consfigurator would not be able to update my laptop’s NVRAM, as is needed on UEFI systems.

What’s wanted here is a live system which can run Consfigurator directly on the laptop, pointed at the block device representing its physical disk drive. Ideally this live system comes with a chroot with the root filesystem for the new Debian install already built, so that network access is not required, and all Consfigurator has to do is partition the drive and copy in the contents of the chroot. The live system could be set up to automatically start doing that upon boot, but another option is to just make Consfigurator itself available to be used interactively. The user boots the live system, starts up Emacs, starts up Lisp, and executes a Consfigurator deployment, supplying the block device representing the laptop’s disk drive as an argument to the deployment. Consfigurator goes off and partitions that drive, copies in the contents of the chroot, and executes grub-install to make the laptop bootable. This is also much easier to debug than a live system which tries to start partitioning upon boot. It would look something like this:

    ;; melete.silentflame.com is a Consfigurator host object representing the
    ;; laptop, including information about the partitions it should have
    (deploy-these :local ...
        melete.silentflame.com "/srv/chroot/melete" "/dev/nvme0n1"))

Now, building live systems is a fair bit more involved than installing Debian to a disk drive and making it bootable, it turns out. While I want Consfigurator to be able to completely replace the Debian Installer, I decided that it is not worth trying to reimplement the relevant parts of the Debian Live tool suite, because I do not need to make arbitrary customisations to any live systems. I just need to have some packages installed and some files in place. Nevertheless, it is worth teaching Consfigurator how to invoke Debian Live, so that the customisation of the chroot which isn’t just a matter of passing options to lb_config(1) can be done with Consfigurator. This is what I’ve ended up with – in Consfigurator’s source code:

(defpropspec image-built :lisp (config dir properties)
  "Build an image under DIR using live-build(7), where the resulting live
system has PROPERTIES, which should contain, at a minimum, a property from
CONSFIGURATOR.PROPERTY.OS setting the Debian suite and architecture.  CONFIG
is a list of arguments to pass to lb_config(1), not including the '-a' and
'-d' options, which Consfigurator will supply based on PROPERTIES.

This property runs the lb_config(1), lb_bootstrap(1), lb_chroot(1) and
lb_binary(1) commands to build or rebuild the image.  Rebuilding occurs only
when changes to CONFIG or PROPERTIES mean that the image is potentially
out-of-date; e.g. if you just add some new items to PROPERTIES then in most
cases only lb_chroot(1) and lb_binary(1) will be re-run.

Note that lb_chroot(1) and lb_binary(1) both run after applying PROPERTIES,
and might undo some of their effects.  For example, to configure
/etc/apt/sources.list, you will need to use CONFIG not PROPERTIES."
  (:desc (declare (ignore config properties))
         #?"Debian Live image built in ${dir}")
  (let* (...)
    ;; ...
      ;; ...
               (file:has-content ,auto/config ,(auto/config config) :mode #o755)
             (file:does-not-exist ,@clean)
             (%lbconfig ,dir)
             (%lbbootstrap t ,dir))
           (%lbbootstrap nil ,dir)
           (deploys ((:chroot :into ,chroot)) ,host))
        (%lbchroot ,dir)
        (%lbbinary ,dir)))))

Here, %lbconfig is a property running lb_config(1), %lbbootstrap one which runs lb_bootstrap(1), etc. Those properties all just change directory to the right place and run the command, essentially, with a little extra code to handle failed debootstraps and the like.

The ON-CHANGE and ESEQPROPS combinators work together to sequence the interaction of the Debian Live suite and Consfigurator.

  • In the innermost ON-CHANGE expression: create the file auto/config and populate it with the call to lb_config(1) that we need to make, as described in the Debian Live manual, chapter 6.

    • If doing so resulted in a change to the auto/config file – e.g. the user added some more options – ensure that lb_config(1) and lb_bootstrap(1) both get rerun.
  • Now in the inner ESEQPROPS expression, use DEPLOYS to configure the chroot, essentially by forking into the chroot and recursively reinvoking Consfigurator.

  • Finally, if any of the above resulted in a change being made, call lb_chroot(1) and lb_binary(1).

This way, we only rebuild the chroot if the configuration changed, and we only rebuild the image if the chroot changed.

Now over in my personal consfig:

 :git-snapshot :name "consfig" :repo #P"src/cl/consfig/" ...)

(defproplist hybrid-live-iso-built :lisp ()
  "Build a Debian Live system in /srv/live/spw.

Typically this property is not applied in a DEFHOST form, but rather run as
needed at the REPL.  The reason for this is that otherwise the whole image will
get rebuilt each time a commit is made to my dotfiles repo or to my consfig."
  (:desc "Sean's Debian Live system image built")
      '("--archive-areas" "main contrib non-free" ...)
    (os:debian-stable "buster" :amd64)
    (apt:installed "whatever" "you" "want")

    (git:snapshot-extracted "/etc/skel/src" "dotfiles")
    (file:is-copy-of "/etc/skel/.bashrc" "/etc/skel/src/dotfiles/.bashrc")

    (git:snapshot-extracted "/root/src/cl" "consfig")))

The first argument to LIVE-BUILD:IMAGE-BUILT. is additional arguments to lb_config(1). The third argument onwards are the properties for the live system. The cool thing is GIT:SNAPSHOT-EXTRACTED – the calls to this ensure that a copy of my Emacs configuration and my consfig end up in the live image, ready to be used interactively to install Debian, as described above. I’ll need to add something like (chroot:host-chroot-bootstrapped melete.silentflame.com "/srv/chroot/melete") too.

As with everything Consfigurator-related, Joey Hess’s Propellor is the giant upon whose shoulders I’m standing.

Posted Thu 08 Apr 2021 23:35:00 UTC

I was shocked to learn today that Richard Stallman has been reinstated as a member of the board of the Free Software Foundation. I think this is plain inappropriate, but I cannot see how anyone who doesn’t think that could fail to see the reinstatement as counterproductive. As Bradley M. Kuhn put it,

The question is whether an organization should have a designated leader who is on a sustained, public campaign advocating about an unrelated issue that many consider controversial. It really doesn’t matter what your view about the controversial issue is; a leader who refuses to stop talking loudly about unrelated issues eventually creates an untenable distraction from the radical activism you’re actively trying to advance. The message of universal software freedom is a radical cause; it’s basically impossible for one individual to effectively push forward two unrelated controversial agendas at once. In short, the radical message of software freedom became overshadowed by RMS’ radical views about sexual morality.

There is an open letter calling for the removal of the entire Board of the Free Software Foundation in response. I haven’t signed the letter because the Free Software Foundation Board’s vote to reinstate Stallman was not unanimous, so the call to remove all of them does not make sense to me. I agree with the open letter’s call to remove Stallman from other positions of leadership. I hope that this whole situation can be resolved quickly.

Posted Tue 23 Mar 2021 23:01:11 UTC

I had thought that Emacs’ C-t was mainly about correcting typos. It turns out to be extremely useful when working on Lisp macros which themselves write macros. This typically involves nested quasiquotation, where you can have multiple alternating sequences of open parentheses and backticks, or of commas, quotation marks and ampersats. While you’re working on it you often need to reorder these character sequences and C-t does a great job.

Posted Sat 13 Mar 2021 22:04:57 UTC

I’d like to briefly introduce my new project, Consfigurator:

Consfigurator is a system for declarative configuration management using Common Lisp. You can use it to configure hosts as root, deploy services as unprivileged users, build and deploy containers, and produce disc images. [not all of these are implemented yet, but the design permits them to be]

Consfigurator’s design gives you a great deal of flexibility about how to control the hosts you want to configure. If there is a command you can run which will obtain input and output streams attached to an interactive POSIX sh running on the target host/container, then with a little glue code, you can use much of Consfigurator’s functionality to configure that host/container. But if it is possible to get an implementation of Common Lisp started up on the host, then Configurator can transparently execute your deployment code over on the remote side, rather than exchanging information via POSIX sh. This lets you use the full power of Common Lisp to deploy your configuration.

Configurator has convenient abstractions for combining these different ways to execute your configuration on hosts with different ways of connecting to them. Connections can be arbitrarily nested. For example, to combine SSHing to a Debian machine as an unprivileged user, using sudo to become root, and then starting up a Lisp image to execute your deployment code, you would evaluate

    (deploy ((:ssh (:sudo :as "spwhitton@athena.example.com") :debian-sbcl)) athena.example.com)

Declarative configuration management systems like Consfigurator and Propellor share a number of goals with projects like the GNU Guix System and NixOS. However, tools like Consfigurator and Propellor try to layer the power of declarative and reproducible configuration on top of traditional, battle-tested unix system administration infrastructure like apt, dpkg, yum, and distro package archives, rather than seeking to replace any of those. Let’s get as much as we can out of all that existing distro policy-compliant work!

Please check out the user’s manual, which includes a tutorial/quick start guide, and come join us in #consfigurator on irc.oftc.net. It’s early days but you can already do a fair few things with Consfigurator. It’s a good time to come help get all the basic properties defined!

Posted Wed 10 Mar 2021 20:04:46 UTC

While struggling with Pfizer second dose side effects yesterday, with little ability to do anything serious – so surreal to have a fever yet also certainty you’re not actually ill[1] – I thought I’d try building the branch of Emacs with native Wayland support, and try starting up Sway instead of i3. I recently upgraded my laptop to Debian bullseye, as I usually do at this stage of our pre-release freeze, and was wondering whether bullseye would be the release which would enable me to switch to Wayland.

Why might I want to do this? I don’t care about screen tearing and don’t have any fancy monitors with absurd numbers of pixels. Previously, I had been hoping to cling on to my X11 setup for as long as possible, and switch to Wayland only once things I want to use started working worse on X11, because all the developers of those things have stopped using X11. But then after upgrading to bullseye, I found I had to forward-port an old patch to xfce4-session to prevent it from resetting SSH_AUTH_SOCK to the wrong value, and I thought to myself, maybe I could cut out some of the layers here, and maybe it’ll be a bit less annoying. I have a pile of little scripts trying to glue together xfce4 and i3 to get all the functionality I need, but since there have been people who use their computers for similar purposes to me trying to make Sway useful for quite some time now, maybe there are more integrated solutions available.

I have also been getting tired of things which have only ever half-worked under X, like toggling autolock off when there isn’t fullscreen video playing (when I’m video conferencing on another device, I often want to prevent my laptop’s screen from locking, and it works most of the time, but sometimes still locks, sigh). I have a “normalise desktop” keybinding which tries to fix recurrent issues by doing things like restarting ibus, and it would be nice to drop something so hackish.

And indeed, a lot of basic things do work way better under Sway. swayidle is clean and sane, and I was easily able to add a keybinding which inhibits locking the screen when a certain window is visible. I could bind brightness up/down keys without having to invoke xfce4-power-manager – never managed that before – and, excitingly, I could have those keys bound such that they still work when the screen is locked. I still need two old scripts which interact with the i3/sway IPC, but those two are reasonable ways to extend functionality, rather than bad hacks.

The main thing that I could not figure out is IME – various people claim online to have got typing their Asian languages working natively under Sway, not just into Xwayland windows, but I couldn’t, and there is no standard way to do it yet, it would seem. Also, it seems Qt in Debian doesn’t support Wayland natively, so far as I could tell. And there isn’t really a drop-in replacement for dmenu yet, so you have to run that under Xwayland. A lot of this is probably going to be fixed during 2021, but the thing is, I’ll be on Debian bullseye, so how it works now is probably as good as it is going to get for the next two years or so.

So, wanting to get back to doing something more useful today, I reluctantly booted back into X11. I’m really looking forward to switching to Sway, and getting rid of some of my hacks, but I think I am probably going to have to wait for Debian bookworm – unless I completely run out of patience with the various X11 annoyances described above, and start furiously backporting things.

Update, later that afternoon… Newer versions of fcitx5 packages hit Debian testing within the past few days, it turns out, and the IME problem is solved! So looks like I am slowly going to be able to migrate to Sway during the Debian bullseye lifecycle after all. How nice. Many thanks to various upstreams and those who have been working on these packages in Debian.

[1] Okay, I suppose I could have caught the disease a few days ago and it became symptomatic at the same time I was experiencing the side effects.

Posted Thu 04 Mar 2021 18:29:24 UTC